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Characteristics of the stratigraphic architectures of the shallow sections in deep sea basin on both sides of Kyushu-Palau ridge
The Philippine Basin has the most complex submarine topography in the world due to the movement of the three plates, the Eurasian the Australian and the Pacific. Taking the Kyushu-Palau ridge as a boundary, the West Philippine Basin shows different structural patterns and topographic features with the Parece Vela Basin where abundant deep-sea geological phenomena and geomorphic features occur.. The high-resolution profiles of the deep seabed can be acquired with the parametric array shallow layer profiler forits transmitting characteristics of difference-frequency and narrowband beam. In this paper, the characteristics of submarine landslides, the sedimentary differences around sea-knolls and the migration of shallow gas and submarine fluid are carefully studied with the East-West trending shallow strata sections across the ridge. The Genetic mechanism of the geological characteristics is discussed by the integration of structural and topographical features. The research of shallow stratigraphic architectures made on vertical short-time scale may provide more evidence and ideas for the sedimentological and geological researches of the region.
YANG Huiliang, WEI Jia, LI Panfeng, LIU Changchun, DONG Lingyu
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2020072202
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2021, 41(1): 14-21
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High-resolution oxygen isotope records of Tridacna gigas from Palau, Western Pacific and its climatic and environmental implications
Tridacna gigas is the largest marine bivalve, and its hard and dense aragonite shells usually have annual and daily growth lines, which have been demonstrated to be an ideal material for high-resolution paleoclimate research. The oxygen isotope has been widely used in Tridacna paleoclimate studies. However, the oxygen isotope of Tridacna shells must be accurately calibrated by modern geochemical process before paleoclimate reconstructions. Palau is located in the northwestern edge of the Western Pacific Warm Pool. Long-lived Tridacna spp. is a common species in the coral reefs of Palau Islands, which may provide abundant materials for paleoclimate reconstructions. In this study, we present a high-resolution oxygen isotope profile from the inner shell of a modern living T. gigas specimen PL-1 from Palau. The high-resolution chronology of the oxygen isotope profile is determined by the clear daily growth layers in the inner shell. The result suggests that the δ18Oc profile of the T. gigas shell has no obvious trend, indicating that the vital effects have no significant influence on the oxygen isotope of shell. Combining with the instrumental data, we found that the ENSO activities in the tropical Pacific had impacts on the regional hydro-climate changes of Palau, and left some fingerprint in the oxygen isotope of Tridacna shell. This study indicates that the daily growth layer and the oxygen isotope in the inner shell of Tridacna from Palau have the potential for high-resolution paleoclimate research.
WEN Hanfeng, ZHAO Nanyu, LIU Chengcheng, ZHOU Pengchao, WANG Guozhen, YAN Hong
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2020101101
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2021, 41(1): 1-13
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Research progress of the Holocene paleoflood in the Yellow River basin and a future prospect
The study of Holocene paleoflood can remedy the limitation of modern flood monitoring records in time and space, and more scientifically identify the flooding regulations and mechanisms. It has gradually become one of the hotspots of the research of global changes. Due to the unique geological conditions in the Yellow River basin, floods have frequently happened in the Holocene history. The present flood risk is still very high in the basin, and therefore, it is one of the key areas of paleoflood research in China. This paper focuses on the research results of the paleoflood in the Yellow River basin published in the past ten years with special interests in sedimentary characteristics, hydrological reconstruction, chronological framework, and its relation to the rise and fall of civilization. Key problems and development trends of the current researches are also discussed, and it is suggested that the records of ancient floods at different geomorphologic locations in the basin should be further collected.
ZHANG Peng, YANG Jinsong, ZHAO Hua, LIU Zhe, SONG Lei, ZHANG Run, CAO Wengeng
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2020042601
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2020, 40(6): 178-188
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Numerical study on the movement of the decomposition front of natural gas hydrate under depressurization
In the process of hydrate decompression, there occurs a decomposition front between the decomposed and undecomposed regions of gas hydrate reservoir. Studying the movement of the decomposition front may help to understand the hydrate decomposition characteristics and further predict the gas volume, which will provide a scientific reference for the actual exploitation potential. In this paper, a one-dimensional and three-phase mathematical model is established. After analyzing the parameter magnitude, the movement of gas and water in hydrate reservoir is regarded as steady flow, and the decomposition front is calculated. Meanwhile, the temperature field equations were dimensionless trans-formed to obtain the transcendental equations for calculating temperature. Combined with the model example, it is considered that the movement of the hydrate decomposition front is linear with the square root of time, and the gas production rate rapidly decreases to a stable value after reaching the peak in the early period. In addition, based on the results of the first trial production in Shen Hu area of the South China Sea, it is found that the total gas production calculated by the model is higher than the actual trial production value, and the relative error is within the acceptable range. Therefore, this paper provides a new simple calculation method for hydrate exploitation characteristics, and gives an optimistic prediction for the exploitation potential. Finally, through sensitivity analyses of the initial temperature, absolute permeability and porosity, it is found that with the increase of the initial temperature and permeability of the formation, the moving distance of the hydrate decomposition front will increase, and the initial formation temperature has a significant effect on the decomposition of hydrate. As the porosity of the formation gets greater, the movement rate of the decomposition front decreases, the moving distance decreases, and the pressure difference between the wellhead and the decomposition front decreases. At this time, the movement of the decomposition front is determined by the thermal physical parameters of the reservoir.
PENG Yingyu, SU Zheng, LIU Lihua, JIN Guangrong, WEI Xueqin
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2020072701
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2020, 40(6): 198-207
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Accumulation model of natural gas hydrate in the Beaufort-Mackenzie Delta Basin, the Arctic
The Beaufort-Mackenzie Delta is an Arctic basin which contains abundant conventional hydrocarbon and natural gas hydrate. It is also one of the earliest regions in the world to carry out producing test of natural gas hydrate. To study the coexistence relationship between the hydrate and conventional hydrocarbon in the basin has not only direct significance to energy resource exploration, but also important theoretical and practical significance to seabed stability assessment, global climate change and carbon cycle research. In this paper, geological factors and stability conditions for hydrate reservoir generation was systematically summarized based on the large number of data available. Furthermore, combined with the analysis of glacier evolution, it was concluded that the accumulation of natural gas hydrate in the basin is controlled by the leakage of the underlying petroleum system and the change in permafrost zone. It is revealed that the gas source of hydrate in the basin is mainly the thermogenic hydrocarbon gas coming from the buried petroleum system. The activities of tectonic elements, such as faults and folders, were positively correlated with the enrichment of hydrate, and the hydrate occurrence was mainly related to the sand bodies of the delta plain in the Iperk, Kugmallit and Richards sequences. The permafrost above the hydrate stabilization zone plays a key role in the accumulation of gas hydrate.
YANG Chupeng, LIU Jie, YANG Rui, YAO Yongjian, LI Xuejie, SU Ming
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2020052602
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2020, 40(6): 146-158
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Methane migration and consumption in submarine mud volcanism and their impacts on marine carbon input
Submarine mud volcanoes contribute carbon to the hydrosphere and the atmosphere by releasing methane-rich fluids, and researches on the temporal and spatial distribution of methane migration and chemical transportation at submarine mud volcanoes are the keys to understanding the processes mentioned above. In this paper, a large number of domestic and foreign literatures are systematically investigated, and the strong heterogeneity of methane leakage was recognized in the mud volcano systems. Methane emissions mainly occur during the eruption and dormant periods of mud volcanoes, and only a small amount of leakage occurs in extinct periods. In space, strong methane bubble leakages are usually developed around the centers of mud volcanos, and the chemical transportation efficiencies of methane are low in sediments; the leakages of methane and DIC controlled by fluid flow are mainly developed in the wings, where the rates of anaerobic oxidation of methane and the precipitation rate of authigenic carbonate are the highest. Shallow sediments have the strongest interception to carbon emission; both the intensity and the transportation rate of methane in the edge area are low, and hence a large area of DIC microleakage is developed. Globally, the carbon flux from submarine mud volcanos into shallow sediments is ca. 0.02 Pg C·a−1. The methane and DIC coming from sediments could cause seawater anoxia, acidification, and change air-sea carbon exchange fluxes, which may affect the ocean’s ability to absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide on millennium scale or even in a shorter time, and thus impacts on the global climate environment. In the future, accurate statistics on the number and eruption cycle of submarine mud volcanoes, and detailed investigations on the migration and transportation of methane in typical submarine mud volcanoes with different sizes and development stages, will be helpful to further accurately estimate their total carbon emissions, to study the impacts of bottom-up mud volcanoes’ carbon emissions on the marine carbon cycle, and to improve the marine carbon cycle model.
XU Cuiling, SUN Zhilei, WU Nengyou, ZHAO Guangtao, GENG Wei, CAO Hong, ZHANG Xianrong, ZHANG Xilin, ZHAI Bin, LI Xin
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2020050801
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2020, 40(6): 1-13
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Development of engineering-geological parameters evaluation system for hydrate-bearing sediment and its functional verification
Engineering-geological parameters are crucial for evaluation of geohazard potential in marine hydrate exploitation. The combination of piezocone penetration and vane shear test may help gain longitudinally continuous and reliable parameters for hydrate reservoir, which has great perspective in integrated engineering and geological field survey. However, application of these techniques to marine hydrate survey has remained vacant so far. To better understand the penetration or shearing behaviors and their influencing factors in hydrate-bearing sediment (HBS), we developed a novel engineering-geological parameters evaluation system, which may satisfy the need of five-bridge piezocone penetration test and vane shear test. The tip resistance, side frictional resistance, excess pore pressure, electrical resistance, and video along the penetration path could be obtained through five-bridge piezocone penetration test. The method of electrical resistivity tomography is firstly combined with piezocone penetration and vane shear technology in this system to explain the relationships between engineering geological parameters and hydrate saturation. The sandy sediment and clayey-silt sediment (free of hydrate) are involved to verify the functions of the system. The results show favorable fitness with the field-obtained data. Repeated experiments show high reproducibility of the data. This system proved the possibility of establishing quantitative evaluation models of engineering geological parameters in HBS, and also provided a basic platform for novel probing device test in the integrative engineering-and-geological hydrate survey.
LI Yanlong, CHEN Qiang, LIU Changling, WU Nengyou, SUN Jianye, SHEN Zhicong, ZHANG Minsheng, HU Gaowei
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2019110401
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2020, 40(5): 192-200
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Characteristics, distribution and implication of hydrothermal minerals in Tianxiu Hydrothermal Field, Carlsberg Ridge, northwest Indian Ocean
Hydrothermal minerals could originate from mass wasting of hydrothermal deposits or from the hydrothermal plume falling-out. The types and their spatial distribution of hydrothermal minerals are important indicators for constraining the location of hydrothermal field. The Tianxiu Hydrothermal Field (3°41′N,63°50′E) is an ultramafic-hosted field located on the Carlsberg Ridge, northwest Indian Ocean. In this paper, surface sediments collected from 4 stations near the active venting site of Tianxiu Hydrothermal Field and its surrounding regions were studied on hydrothermal minerals to understand their spatial variations on morphology, composition, abundance and particle size. Near the venting site (0 ~ 0.22 km) the hydrothermal minerals are dominated by Cu-Zn-Fe containing sulfide aggregates, in the size from gravel to sand, originated from the mass wasting of the sulfide deposits and precipitation from the hydrothermal fluid. For samples collected outside of the hydrothermal field (1.84 ~ 6.05 km away), the hydrothermal minerals are dominated by fine grain hydrothermal oxides and hydroxides derived from plume fallout. Our results suggest that the types and grain size of hydrothermal minerals and their spatial distribution can be served as a good indicator for tracking unknown active and inactive hydrothermal field and prospecting of the associated hydrothermal sulfide resources.
CAI Yiyang, HAN Xiqiu, QIU Zhongyan, WANG Yejian, LI Mou, Samuel Olatunde Popoola
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2019101201
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2020, 40(5): 36-45
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Research progress in seamount influence on depositional processes and evolution of deep-water bottom currents
Seamount is a kind of tectonic geomorphological features widely distributed in the deep sea around the world, where bottom currents persistently exist, thus the interactions between seamounts and bottom currents are very common and will bring about non-negligible influence on deep-water sedimentation and their evolution. This study summarized the global researches on the deep water sedimentation by bottom currents around seamounts, suggesting that deep-water bottom-current hydrodynamics would change under the direct or indirect influence of seamounts, including the changing in flow paths, generation of secondary bottom currents, and variation in ecosystems. Consequently, deep-water sedimentary morphologies and lithofacies would display special distribution patterns. With the evolution of bottom-current hydrodynamics and sedimentary morphologies, deep water sedimentation processes and associated responses would change as well. In summary, bottom currents are complex and special around seamounts, resulting in sedimentary morphologies and lithofacies features as well as distribution patterns differing from those on the open slope. Thus, the sedimentary morphologies and lithofacies formed under bottom currents around seamounts have very particular implications for basin structures and palaeoceanography evolution. However, there is still lack of study concerning the coupling relationship between seamounts and deep water sedimentation processes, greatly limiting deep-sea resource exploration and geo-hazard study, thus more attention is required to be paid to the relationships in the future research of deep-water sedimentology.
WANG Xingxing, CAI Feng, WU Nengyou, LI Qing, SUN Zhilei, WU Linqiang
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2019111101
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2020, 40(5): 68-78
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Stratigraphic features and controlling factors in the eastern Sub-basin of the Central Basin, South China Sea during the post-spreading period
Driven by sea-floor spreading, the tectonic evolution of a marginal basin could be divided into three stages, namely the pre-spreading, spreading and post-spreading stages. Most of the thick deposits developed in the Central basin of the South China Sea, especially the thickest in the eastern Sub-basin was deposited in the post-spreading stage. Various factors were active in different parts of the eastern Sub-basin, resulting in a great variety of post-spreading stratigraphic features. A great amount of information about the formation and evolution of the South China Sea was preserved in the thick sediments. Therefore, it is important to study the stratigraphic features in the eastern Sub-basin formed during the post-spreading stage. According to the age data from some ODP and IODP drilling holes, the synthetic seismic records passing through the wells were calibrated and then the sequence stratigraphy of the region was established and dated. Upon the basis, we discussed in this paper the characteristics of the strata and related factors. The result shows that deposition of the sediments with stable thickness was mainly caused by stable basement subsidence with substantial terrigenous sediments input from the north, and the micro-plate subducting toward Manila trench was the main influence factor which gave rise to the characters of the strata in different age in the east. The sediments containing certain amount of volcanic debris was deposited in the west and middle part owing to the frequent magmatic activities. And in the south of the basin, turbidite sediment waves occurred due to the control of slope environment.
QIU Yan, DU Wenbo, HUANG Wenkai, WANG Yingmin, NIE Xin
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2020053001
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2020, 40(5): 1-14
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Collision of North China and Yangtze Plates: Evidence from the South Yellow Sea
As an important geological event in East China, the collision of the Yangtze plate and North China plate gave rise to the formation of the Sulu-Dabie orogen. This paper made a thorough review on the different collision models. Data from seismic profiles and seismic tomography support the detachment model to the Lower Yangtze region. It says that the upper crust of the Yangtze Block detached from the lower crust, just like a crocodile opened its mouth, and the North China plate fortunately wedged into it. In the Qianliyan belt there developed similar gravity and magnetic anomalies with Sulu orogen, as the extension of the Dabie-Sulu orogen. In seismic profiles, the South Yellow Sea Basin and Qianliyan Uplift Belt are different in reflection characteristics. There are complete stratigraphic reflections in the basin but no obvious reflections in the uplift. All the boundaries show a south-dipping reflection patterns, suggesting the obduction of the Yangtze Block. The collision and derived compression mainly happened in Triassic while the growth strata deformation formed in lower Jurassic. In the lower crust of the Qianliyan Uplift, the Moho reflection is recognized at ~10 s, and disappeared below the South Yellow Sea Basin. It is thus speculated that the lower crust under the Qianliyan Uplift belong to the North China Plate, and the collision between Yangtze and North China caused the fading out of the Moho reflection. Generally, the geophysical data from the South Yellow Sea support the hypothesis that the North China Block wedged into the crocodile mouth of the Yangtze Block.
CHEN Jianwen, XU Ming, LEI Baohua, SHI Jian, LIU Jun
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2019070902
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2020, 40(3): 1-12
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Meso−Cenozoic deformation and dynamic mechanism of the ocean−continent transitional zone in the East China Sea
Continent-ocean transition zone (COT) is a key to better understanding the geodynamic process and its mechanism between ocean and continent and has long been one of the hot issues in geoscientific research. The Southern East China Sea Shelf Basin (SECSSB), Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong regions, located at the eastern South China Block, have suffered from the westward subduction of the Izanagi Plate and the Pacific Plate as well as the far-field effect of the collision of the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate since Mesozoic, and complete records on tectonic deformation and COT interaction in this period are preserved. Based on geological and geophysical data acquired over the last 10 years, synthesizing Meso-Cenozoic research results and making land-ocean correlation, this paper studied the Meso-Cenozoic tectonic deformation and dynamic mechanism of the SECSSB and its adjacent areas. Based on the field geological survey, this paper provides a summary of the Meso-Cenozoic tectonic deformation in the land area. 4 major regional unconformities and 4 main structural layers are recognized, in addition to the 6 tectomagmatic periods and 5 large regional faults which have great influence on the Meso- Cenozoic sedimentary evolution. Meanwhile, this paper also summarized the Meso- Cenozoic stratigraphic framework and recognized 5 types of tectonic styles and 12 tectonic combinations in the SECSSB. Faults mainly trend in NE−NNE except a few small ones trending in EW. Magmatic rocks were mainly formed during the Yanshanian and Himalayan periods and display a spatially regular migration from west to east. Numerical simulation results show that slow-stretching model is consistent with the Mesozoic tectonic setting and local water-bearing mantle melting of the region since plate subduction is believed the main reason for the formation of magmatic rocks in the study area. Based on the study mentioned above, we discussed in details the Meso-Cenozoic tectonic evolution and basin type in this paper.
YANG Chuansheng, YANG Changqing, YANG Yanqiu, SUN Jing, YAN Zhonghui, WANG Jianqiang
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2019080201
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2020, 40(1): 71-84
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Second-order climatic cycles in the Chinese Loess Plateau and their bearing on precession driving
Sub-palaeosols are commonly observed in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Based on the grain size and magnetic susceptibility data, second-order climatic stages (SOCC) of the CLP are further divided and correlated, and the sequence of SOCC after L21 is preliminarily established in this paper. Taking the Northern Hemisphere summer solstice at perihelion and apohelion as boundaries, precession cycles are transformed into the “Ideal precession climatic cycle” (IPCC) for the Northern Hemisphere. Correlated with the SOCC established in the Loess Plateau, it is found that there are 122 second order climatic stages, corresponding to 61 secondary climatic cycles, could be identified in the 72 precession cycles since L21. Except for the stages which are too weak in precession variation, there is almost a one-to-one correspondent relationship between the SOCC and the IPCC. It is, therefore, concluded that the SOCC in the CLP are mainly driven by precession cycles. Compared with the first-order climatic cycle which reflect global climatic change, the SOCC of the CLP highlights the role of the precession cycle with hemispheric effect in the climatic change of the Loess Plateau. The SOCC have been partly obscured by the glacial-interglacial cycles. It is needed to trace back and forth across the plateau to reveal the pattern clearly. SOCC in the CLP not only serves as the basic unit for stratigraphic classification, but also has some absolute chronological significance to some extent due to the constraints of precession. Enough attention should be paid to its paleoclimatic implication in addition to stratigraphic significance.
ZHAO Qiang, LI Xishuang, WU Yonghua, LIU Jianxing
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2018110501
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2020, 40(1): 136-159
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A comparative study on the Late Quaternary stratigraphic architecture and formation of megadeltas in East and South Asia
Based on the researches on the evolution of megadeltas in East and South Asia since last deglaciation, we carried out a comparative study on the Late Quaternary stratigraphic architecture, sedimentary systems and the initiation time of megadeltas at large river mouths of the region. Major control factors on deltaic evolution are revealed and discussed. Our data suggests that all the river mouths in the region seem having experienced similar evolutionary history, including the infilling of incised palaeo-valleys and estuaries in Early Holocene, and deltaic progradation in Middle to Late Holocene, controlled by the sea-level change. However, there are some differences in the stratigraphic architecture and sedimentary history from river to river. The most remarkable difference is the time of delta initiation, which is related to the geomorphology and geology of the drainage basin and the sedimentary basin at river mouths. Those rivers having short flow paths and erosive bedrocks in the drainage basin, such as the Ganges-Brahmaputra, usually produce a huge amount of sediment load. As a result, the time of the delta initiation was obviously earlier than other rivers. The Pearl River delta is another example. It has a semi-closed shallow sedimentary basin which is beneficial to the formation of delta in the Middle Holocene.
PAN Dadong, WANG Zhanghua
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2019012901
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2020, 40(1): 12-21
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Depositional pattern and exploration prospect of the deepwater sediments in Shuangfeng basin
The South China Sea is an important region offshore China for exploration of oil and gas resources and gas hydrate. As the exploration in the shallow waters is moving into a mature stage, the deep water area in the northern part of the South China Sea has gradually become a research hotspot. The study of the Shuangfeng Basin in the deep water basins of the northern South China Sea is obviously lagged behind the others. In this paper, seismic geophysical exploration theories and analogy methods are applied to study the tectono-sedimentary pattern and oil and gas exploration prospects of the basin, based on the 2D multi-channel seismic data and the drilling data of the basin and surrounding areas. A large amount of seismic data were processed and analyzed, and seven reflection horizons traceable recognized in the Shuangfeng basin. Three sets of the seismic sequence are established according to unconformable boundaries. Data shows that after mid-Late Miocene, the basin entered into a bathyal-pelagic depositional environment dominated by deep water sediments, such as undercut channel-fillings, deep water fans and slump deposits. The Cenozoic in the basin is quite thick. Analogy analysis of drilling data and basin modeling suggest that the Oligocene lacustrine-gulf facies in the western and northern depressions have reached the maturity or early maturity stage and had certain hydrocarbon generation capacity. The alluvial fan and fan deltaic deposits developed around the periphery, and the slope fan and the pelvic fan developed in the basin center could be good reservoirs. The bathyal mudstone deposited since Early Miocene are good in quality as regional cap rocks. Excellent source-reservoir-cap systems are available for oil and gas accumulation.
ZHANG Li, LEI Zhenyu, XU Hong, LUO Shuaibing, QIAN Xing, SHUAI Qingwei, JI Zhaopeng, ZHOU Jiawei
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2018091401
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2020, 40(1): 1-11
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