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Characteristics of marine gas hydrate reservoir and its resource evaluation methods
To accurately make resource evaluation is the prerequisite for development of natural gas hydrate resources, and the correct understanding of the characteristics of gas hydrate reservoir is the basis for such evaluation. The content and occurrence of gas hydrate are closely related to and affected by reservoir properties. The occurrence forms of gas hydrate, which includes pore-filling and fracture-filling, mainly depends on the nature and size of pores, fractures and other accumulation spaces in the marine sediments. Different types of hydrate reservoirs have different physical property response characteristics, which directly affects the accuracy of marine gas hydrate resource evaluation. The principles, evaluation parameters and applicability of the existing natural gas hydrate resource evaluation methods are different, and the occurrence type of hydrate is not considered. Based on the previous work, this paper puts forward a new method of "Detail Resource Evaluation" and "Precise Resource Evaluation" for marine natural gas hydrates. The "Detail Resource Evaluation" method based on small panel is suitable for the evaluation of pore-filled hydrate reservoir with rare drilling and dense geophysical survey network in favorable block; The "Precise Resource Evaluation" method based on the concept of "hydrate abundance in reservoir" is applicable to the accurate evaluation of small-scale hydrate orebody with dense well pattern in the well field, and can effectively improve the accuracy of the evaluation of fracture- filled types (e.g. massive, vein and nodule) hydrate resources.
LIU Changling, SUN Yunbao
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2021082401
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2021, 41(5): 44-57
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Stratigraphic classification and sedimentary evolution of the late Neogene to Quaternary sequence on the Central Uplift of the South Yellow Sea
The Core of CSDP-2, which is more than 2800 m long, was retrieved from the Central Uplift of the South Yellow Sea, of which the Mesozoic-Paleozoic strata of the core have become a hot topic under research. However, research results of the uppermost sequence, 592 m in thickness made up of unconsolidated loose sediments, have not yet been reported so far. We have carried out paleomagnetic measurements, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, identification of benthic foraminifera and analyses of sedimentary facies for the sequence, in order to make its stratigraphic classification and reveal its history of sedimentary evolution. The results indicate that the 592 m- thick sequence came into being about 5.2 Ma, with its Quaternary bottom boundary at ~227.91 m of 2.59 Ma, the Lower and Middle Pleistocene boundary at ~65.23 m of 0.78 Ma, and the Middle - Upper Pleistocene boundary at 47.34 m of 128 ka, and covered by the Upper Pleistocene, which could be further subdivided into several sedimentary intervals formed during MIS 5, MIS 4, MIS 3 and MIS 1, while the MIS 2 deposits are missing. Also the results demonstrate that the denudation took place on the Central Uplift during Neogene and came to an end at ~5.2 Ma, followed by the deposition of fluvial deposits from ~5.2 to ~1.7 Ma, which was ceased as the first marine transgression took place in the region since Cenozoic presumably due to subsidence of the Zhe-Min Uplift. From ~1.7 to ~0.83 Ma, there was an alternation of tidal-flat and coastal deposits, and then from ~0.83 to the present the marine environments during high sea-level stands of the interglacial times were close to the marine environment of today in the region, due to the further subsidence of the Zhe-Min Uplift. On the western shelf of the South Yellow Sea, there was a cold water mass during MIS 5, which is broader than that of nowadays, and fluvial, deltaic, fluvial and coastal to inner-shelf environments prevailed successively during MIS 4, early MIS 3, late MIS 3 to MIS 2, and MIS 1. The sedimentary sequence was primarily controlled by tectonic subsidence and sea-level changes, and the sedimentation rates decreased evidently from the Holocene deposits to the Pleistocene and to the whole sequence, owing to the incompleteness of the older sediments comparing to the younger ones. Especially the pre-Late Pleistocene strata are marked by distinct erosion. The results of this study have provided new evidence for better understanding the evolution of sedimentary environments and the formation mechanism of strata in the western South Yellow Sea shelf since late Neogene.
LIU Jian, DUAN Zongqi, MEI Xi, LIU Qingsong, ZHANG Xunhua, GUO Xingwei, WU Zhiqiang, WANG Hong, WANG Feifei, CHEN Bin, ZHANG Xin, AN Yuhui
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2021101701
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2021, 41(5): 25-43
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Controlling factors and research prospect on creeping behaviors of marine natural gas hydrate-bearing-strata
Creeping of HBS is a common behavior of hydrate-bearing strata in the process of gas production and has great impact on the occurrence and development of engineering geohazards. In this paper, we summarized the main failure modes of HBS based on the investigation of a large number of literatures. Then the research thoughts and strategies on strata creeping behaviors during hydrate exploitation are comprehensively discussed, based on the key scientific issues expounded. Afterwards, a multi-scale creeping detection and characterization approach for HBS is put forward, together with its future research trends. It is supposed that creeping behaviors of HBS during gas extraction are the result of combination of hydrate distribution and its dissociation-induced changes in multi-physical fields such as phase transformation, heat exchange, seepage, and stress evolution. The current constitutive models for conventional soils are not effective enough to reflect such a complex dynamic multifield, multiphase and multicomponent coupling effect, which are doubtlessly inadaptable for evaluating the geotechnical issues during hydrate exploitation in the case of northern South China Sea. For this reason, a multi-scale detection and characterization system needs to be established to analyze the dynamic damage behaviors of HBS during hydrate production, which consists of the molecular scale, nano-to-micro scale, core scale, pilot scale, and field scales techniques. Using the sediments collected from the HBS at the northern South China Sea, the control mechanisms of different geological and engineering parameters on hydrate-bearing strata creeping should be quantitatively modeled.
WU Nengyou, LI Yanlong, LIU Lele, WAN Yizhao, ZHANG Zhengcai, CHEN Mingtao
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2021092201
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2021, 41(5): 3-11
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Seafloor hydrothermal system and its magmatic setting in the western Pacific back-arc basins
The study of seafloor hydrothermal system and its magmatic setting can provide effective research support for understanding the material and heat exchange processes across the multi-spheric fluid-solid interfaces in the western Pacific. In order to reveal the magmatic activities, mineral deposition and environmental responses to plate subduction, the magmatic setting of Okinawa Trough hydrothermal systems, hydrothermal plume of Manus basin, isotopic composition of sulfide and basalt in back arc basins and mid-ocean ridges are carefully studied in this paper. The petrographic, mineralogical, major and trace elements, and isotopic composition for basalt, andesite, trachyandesite, dacite, rhyolite and their basic magmatic enclaves near the Okinawa Trough hydrothermal field have been carried out, whereas the hydrothermal plume and seawater measurement in PACMANUS and Desmos hydrothermal fields of the Manus basin studied. The results have successfully revealed the magmatic mixing process and time scale, the deep magmatic chamber and magma evolution process, the contribution of magma to the hydrothermal system in the Okinawa Trough as well as the influence of subduction serpentine on magmatic activity in the southern Ryukyu subduction zone. Melt inclusions are used as the mean to study the evolution of the back-arc basin magma, and the new evidence of the source of basaltic magma in the Okinawa Trough. The origin of iron, copper and zinc in the sulfide and basalts of the mid-ocean ridges and the back-arc basins, and the iron, copper, and zinc isotopic fractionation during sulfide formation and magmatic activity are discussed. The physical and chemical spatial pattern and material composition characteristics of the hydrothermal plume have been defined. It seems that the diffusion depth of the hydrothermal plume is affected by local seawater depth and bottom current, and the concentration anomaly of the dissolved Fe may remain for longer time than dissolved Mn during lateral plume dispersal. In the future, non-traditional stable isotopes and volatile analytical technology should be adopted for further understanding of the relationship between hydrothermal activity and magmatism under plate subduction environment taking the western Pacific as a research case so as to know more about the seafloor hydrothermal system and its ore-forming processes.
ZENG Zhigang, ZHANG Yuxiang, CHEN Zuxing, LI Xiaohui, QI Haiyan, WANG Xiaoyuan, CHEN Shuai, YIN Xuebo
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2021070101
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2021, 41(5): 12-24
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Marine geology and Quaternary geology: A combination
The present journal is unique in its combination of two prominent science disciplines: Marine geology and Quaternary geology. To celebrate its 40th anniversary, the paper reviews the history of joint development of the two disciplines in China, with a discussion on its prospects in the future.
WANG Pinxian
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2021072601
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2021, 41(5): 1-2
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Provenance evolution since Middle Holocene of the sediments on the East Siberian shelf: Evidence from elemental geochemistry
The Arctic region is very sensitive to global climate change. It is a key area in the world to the study of paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic changes. The East Siberian Sea (ESS) is one of the important marginal seas in the Arctic region. Study of the sediment provenance of the ESS shelf is essential to the overall understanding of the Arctic environmental and climatic changes. Based on the analyzing results of the major, trace and rare earth elements from the core of LV77-36, this paper described the change patterns of concerned indices with time, discussed the variation of detrital components in the ESS sediments since Middle Holocene, and finally, revealed the response of provenance evolution to paleoenvironment changes. The results show that since Middle Holocene, the sediments of the core LV77-36 are mainly coming from the suspended materials carried by the Lena, Indigirka, Yana and Mackenzie rivers, in addition to the coastal erosive materials from the Siberian platform and New Siberian Islands. According to the Comparison with other paleoclimatic parameters, it is found that the changes of sea ice and ocean currents have important effects on the dispersion and deposition of sediments on the East Siberia shelf. In Late Holocene, due to the increase in sea ice in the Chukchi Sea, the weakening of the Siberian coastal current and the strengthening of the Beaufort circulation, the material contributed by the North American end member increased slightly compared to the Middle Holocene sediments.
FANG Xiaorong, HU Ningjing, DOU Ruxi, ZHANG Ying, ZHANG Hui, LIU Jihua
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2020122701
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2021, 41(4): 60-73
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Rethinking on shallow sedimentary sequence and its evolution of the Xiyang tidal channel in the Radial Sand Ridge Field, South Yellow Sea
Since the Late Quaternary, both the Yellow River and Changjiang River entered into the South Yellow Sea flowing through the middle Jiangsu coast. As a result, a series of sediments have been deposited in this area controlled by the river-sea interactions. The Radial Sand Ridge Field (RSRF) off the middle Jiangsu coast has been formed after the Holocene transgression. The Xiyang tidal channel in the northwestern RSRF is constrained by the tidal flat coast and tidal ridges. It is located in the transition zone between the northern Abandoned Yellow River delta and southern modern Changjiang River delta. Therefore, it becomes the important window area to reveal the sedimentary sequence formed in the coast and continental shelf under the active interactions between different large rivers during the Late Quaternary. As to the upper strata with the depth less than 60 m below the current mean sea-level in the Xiyang tidal channel, there are still different viewpoints on its sedimentary sequence, chronology framework and evolution, while the concerned studies are still pretty limited. Recently, the results of further Late Quaternary stratigraphic correlations and synthesis study on shallow seismic profiles showed that, (1) Due to disordered dating results and improper correlation of terrigenous stiff mud layers, the chronology framework of Xiyang upper strata built previously based on core 07SR01 and Y1 is incorrect, the main part of the upper strata including two sedimentary cycles are the Late Pleistocene deposits and the stiff mud layer of the Last Glacial Maximum is often missing due to the tidal scouring, the thickness of surficial Holocene sediments are generally less than 10 m in the submerged sand ridges, and extensively less than 5 m in other places, or even zero in some places; (2) The shallow seismic unit 3 (U3) only steadily located in the northwestern part of the Xiyang tidal channel indicates the southern margin of the old Yellow River delta developed during MIS 3, and the middle Jiangsu coast in which the Xiyang tidal channel is located was probably influenced deeply by the old Yellow River sediments since the Late Pleistocene, however it is still necessary to recover a new sedimentary core in the key position of northwestern part, plus further study and verification based on the new core and other acquired shallow seismic profiles and cores in the southeastern part should be done. Thus, this paper proposed the further study plan as follows, based on the 3D visualization of the seismic sequence framework, the spatial characteristics of the seismic units and main reflection interfaces would be extracted. Furthermore, combined with the sedimentology and chronology studies of the existing and designed cores, the reliable chronology framework would be set up expectedly, and the provenance from large rivers would be identified. Applying the sequence stratigraphy method, referencing the adjacent published core data, it is targeted to ascertain the shallow sedimentary sequence in the Xiyang tidal channel, and to reveal its evolution.
XIA Fei, ZHANG Yongzhan, LIU Dezheng
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2021033101
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2021, 41(4): 13-26
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Environmental magnetic characteristics and influencing factors on the west coast of Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica
The unique environmental system of the Antarctic ice-free region has been widely studied in recent decades, and environmental magnetism is doubtlessly the method most commonly used in the study. In the year of 2015, a 26 cm long core was collected by the authors from the west coast of the Antarctic peninsula for environmental magnetism, granularity, 210Pb and stable carbon isotope testing and analysis. The bedrock of the coast is dominated by andesitic basalt, so the sediments of the core samples are high in magnetic minerals in general, that resulted in high magnetism. The average susceptibility (χlf) is about 1597×10−8 m3·kg−1, almost 3~4 times higher than the beach magnetic susceptibility. The magnetic minerals mainly consist of ferromagnetic particles (magnetite) with small amount of antiferromagnetic particles (hematite). The vertical changes in 210Pb and granularity data suggest that the sediment particle size is too fine for water movement, and therefore, the movement of pore water is weak. Under such a circumstance, the fine magnetic mineral grains are easily to be preserved. With the increase in depth, the sediments gradually become coarser, and the movement of water is thus enhanced. Plus the influence of biological organic dissolution, magnetism parameters of the lower part of the core is decreased accordingly.
TANG Huaineng, WANG Yonghong, HUANG Qinghui
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2020092001
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2021, 41(4): 1-12
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Sediment pore-structure and permeability variation induced by hydrate formation: Evidence from low field nuclear magnetic resonance observation
The macro-scale physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments is in fact controlled by their micro-scale pore-structures. Understanding the changes in pore-structure characteristics of the sediments during the process of hydrate formation is essential to the analyzing and predicting of the sediment properties. In this paper, the formation processes of Xenon hydrate in different sandy samples are measured with the low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LFNMR) method. The obtained transverse relaxation time (T2) spectra are interpreted for study of the changes in pore-structure and physical properties of the sediments during the hydrate formation. The results show that Xenon hydrates preferentially form in larger pores and only little amount of hydrates formed in smaller pores; the forming rate of hydrate is higher at the early stage of formation but decrease slowly at the later stage; the hydrate formation process also leads to the changes in pore size and pore-size distribution patterns, for examples, the maximum radius and mean radius of the water-phase pores decrease with increasing hydrate saturation, while the fractal dimension of the effective water-phase pores increases with the increasing hydrate saturation; the water-phase permeability decreases rapidly in the early stage of hydrate formation, but slowly decrease since then; the changes of water-phase permeability during hydrate formation are affected by the pore-structures of the sediment; compared to the SDR model and the Kozeny-Carman model, the fractal model of permeability performs better in showing the influences of pore-structure characteristics on the changes of water-phase permeability during the hydrate formation.
ZHANG Yongchao, LIU Changling, LIU Lele, CHEN Pengfei, ZHANG Zhun, MENG Qingguo
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2021031501
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2021, 41(3): 193-202
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Tropical rainfall variations and human activities of last 1 000 years recorded by lake deposits on the Dongdao Island, Xisha Islands
A series of paleoclimate researches have been made in the South China Sea for the past 1000 years, that provided the insights to the understanding of regional climate change pattern and served as the basis to predict and evaluate the future trends of climate change under the joint actions of the human and the nature. Numerous natural archives and proxies are adopted to reveal the climate changes in different regions of China influenced by monsoon and tropical ocean processes. However, due to the lack of high-resolution climate records, our knowledge about the link between precipitation patterns and monsoon variability remains incomplete, particularly in the tropical region. In order to study the rainfall patterns and the history of anthropogenic activities in tropical zones during the time of AD 1000—1700, we studied such proxies as grain-size distribution and magnetic parameters collected from the sediments of the Cattle Pond on the Dongdao Island of the Xisha Islands. The results show that the precipitation on the Dongdao Island is mainly influenced by ENSO activities and the movements of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Both of the factors will increase rainfall in the study area, which is opposed to the pattern of the Monsoon system. Human activities on the island were vigorous during the Southern Song Dynasty and the Late Ming Dynasty when the climate is humid and rich in rainfall. There are two periods characterized by sandstorms occurred in northern China during the time of AD 1000—1200 and AD 1450—1600 respectively in the Xisha Islands, reflecting the long-distance migration and precipitation of dust by air.
ZHANG Ling, YANG Xiaoqiang, SHANG Shengtan, ZHANG Tingwei, LI Guanhua, RUAN Jiaoyang
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2021031603
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2021, 41(3): 182-192
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Changes of the upper water column at the 45°N North Atlantic since marine isotope stage 3
The 45°N of North Atlantic is located at the central zone of the ice-rafted detritus (IRD) belt of the North Atlantic, where the marine sediments contain rich environmental and climatic information of high-resolution. The sedimentary records there are used for reconstruction of the pale-oceanic environment since the last glacial in this study. IRD contents, planktonic foraminiferal assemblages and their oxygen and carbon isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) from the core Hu71-377, are used as major tools. Combined with AMS14C dating and oxygen isotope stratigraphy, five Heinrich layers are identified in the MIS3 and MIS2, in which the Heinrich layer 1, 2 and 4 have obvious IRD peaks, high relative abundance of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma and light δ18O values, but no obvious light δ18O are observed in the Heinrich layer 3 and 5. The difference in δ18O between the Heinrich layers 3 and 5 and the Heinrich layers 1, 2 and 4 may suggest the impacts of melt water on the upper water column. Further, the offsets between δ13CN.incompta and δ13CN.pachyderma may also reflect the changes in the mixed layer and thermocline during the Heinrich events. The δ13C offsets were close to zero during Heinrich 1 and Heinrich 2, attributing to the vertical mixing of seawater driven by strong winds. And the δ13C offsets became larger during Heinrich 4 and Heinrich 5, indicating that the seasonal thermocline became shallower, which supports the inference of the penetration of the North Atlantic Current. What’s more, the planktonic foraminiferal assemblages may reflect the properties of the water masses in the upper water column, especially the relative abundance of N. pachyderma and Neogloboquadrina incompta may indicate the sea surface temperature (SST) changes during MIS3.
YE Xiaoxian, Harunur Rashid
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2020073102
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2021, 41(3): 114-123
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Types and migration of shelf-breaks in the central and eastern parts of the Northern South China Sea and their origin
This paper focuses on the types and characteristics of shelf-break migration in the Central and Eastern parts of the Northern South China Sea in the period of Quaternary. Based on the data of high-resolution seismic profiles and geological cores, six 3rd order sequences and their boundaries have been identified. Upon the basis, three types of shelf-breaks are recognized as well. They are the shelf-breaks on depositional continental margin, erosional continental margin and tectonic-controlled continental margin from west to east, formed by the joint action of tectonism, underwater channeling, sedimentary supply and other factors.
HUANG Wenkai, QIU Yan, PENG Xuechao, NIE Xin, ZHUO Haiteng, FU Chaogang
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2020060801
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2021, 41(3): 1-11
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Characteristics of the stratigraphic architectures of the shallow sections in deep sea basin on both sides of Kyushu-Palau ridge
The Philippine Basin has the most complex submarine topography in the world due to the movement of the three plates, the Eurasian the Australian and the Pacific. Taking the Kyushu-Palau ridge as a boundary, the West Philippine Basin shows different structural patterns and topographic features with the Parece Vela Basin where abundant deep-sea geological phenomena and geomorphic features occur.. The high-resolution profiles of the deep seabed can be acquired with the parametric array shallow layer profiler forits transmitting characteristics of difference-frequency and narrowband beam. In this paper, the characteristics of submarine landslides, the sedimentary differences around sea-knolls and the migration of shallow gas and submarine fluid are carefully studied with the East-West trending shallow strata sections across the ridge. The Genetic mechanism of the geological characteristics is discussed by the integration of structural and topographical features. The research of shallow stratigraphic architectures made on vertical short-time scale may provide more evidence and ideas for the sedimentological and geological researches of the region.
YANG Huiliang, WEI Jia, LI Panfeng, LIU Changchun, DONG Lingyu
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2020072202
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2021, 41(1): 14-21
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High-resolution oxygen isotope records of Tridacna gigas from Palau, Western Pacific and its climatic and environmental implications
Tridacna gigas is the largest marine bivalve, and its hard and dense aragonite shells usually have annual and daily growth lines, which have been demonstrated to be an ideal material for high-resolution paleoclimate research. The oxygen isotope has been widely used in Tridacna paleoclimate studies. However, the oxygen isotope of Tridacna shells must be accurately calibrated by modern geochemical process before paleoclimate reconstructions. Palau is located in the northwestern edge of the Western Pacific Warm Pool. Long-lived Tridacna spp. is a common species in the coral reefs of Palau Islands, which may provide abundant materials for paleoclimate reconstructions. In this study, we present a high-resolution oxygen isotope profile from the inner shell of a modern living T. gigas specimen PL-1 from Palau. The high-resolution chronology of the oxygen isotope profile is determined by the clear daily growth layers in the inner shell. The result suggests that the δ18Oc profile of the T. gigas shell has no obvious trend, indicating that the vital effects have no significant influence on the oxygen isotope of shell. Combining with the instrumental data, we found that the ENSO activities in the tropical Pacific had impacts on the regional hydro-climate changes of Palau, and left some fingerprint in the oxygen isotope of Tridacna shell. This study indicates that the daily growth layer and the oxygen isotope in the inner shell of Tridacna from Palau have the potential for high-resolution paleoclimate research.
WEN Hanfeng, ZHAO Nanyu, LIU Chengcheng, ZHOU Pengchao, WANG Guozhen, YAN Hong
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2020101101
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2021, 41(1): 1-13
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Research progress of the Holocene paleoflood in the Yellow River basin and a future prospect
The study of Holocene paleoflood can remedy the limitation of modern flood monitoring records in time and space, and more scientifically identify the flooding regulations and mechanisms. It has gradually become one of the hotspots of the research of global changes. Due to the unique geological conditions in the Yellow River basin, floods have frequently happened in the Holocene history. The present flood risk is still very high in the basin, and therefore, it is one of the key areas of paleoflood research in China. This paper focuses on the research results of the paleoflood in the Yellow River basin published in the past ten years with special interests in sedimentary characteristics, hydrological reconstruction, chronological framework, and its relation to the rise and fall of civilization. Key problems and development trends of the current researches are also discussed, and it is suggested that the records of ancient floods at different geomorphologic locations in the basin should be further collected.
ZHANG Peng, YANG Jinsong, ZHAO Hua, LIU Zhe, SONG Lei, ZHANG Run, CAO Wengeng
doi: 10.16562/j.cnki.0256-1492.2020042601
Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology. 2020, 40(6): 178-188
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