As an important part of global ocean circulation, the North Pacific Ocean plays a key role in regulating the transfer and redistribution of heat and matter between high and low latitudes, thus affecting the Earth’s climate system. Based on the ocean drilling programs over 50 years in the past, many achievements in geoscience have been made. We reviewed the progresses of paleoclimate research in the North Pacific in the following aspects: (1) the evolution of the East Asian summer monsoon and the western boundary current, as well as their contributions to the transportation of heat and water vapor between high and low latitudes in North Pacific; (2) changes in water property, distribution, and the driving mechanisms of the Pacific Deep Water and North Pacific Intermediate Water, as well as the climatic response of their interaction during glacial-interglacial cycles; (3) the response of aeolian flux to the Asian inland and its iron fertilization effect on the North Pacific productivity. Previous studies have addressed those scientific problems, uncertain issued remain controversial. We therefore proposed the key scientific issues for future research in the North Pacific Ocean, and emphasized the importance of multi-layer and multi-system perspectives for deciphering the past changes of the Earth's climate system. Finally, we suggested the ideal target areas for ocean drilling program in North Pacific in the future.