[1] Jeong K S, Jung H S, Kang J K, et al. Formation of ferromanganese crusts on northwest intertropical Pacific seamounts: electron photomicrography and microprobe chemistry [J]. Marine Geology, 2000, 162(2-4): 541-559. doi: 10.1016/S0025-3227(99)00091-2
[2] De Carlo E H, Fraley C M. Chemistry and mineralogy of ferromanganese deposits from the equatorial pacific ocean[M]// Keating B H, Bolton B R. Geology and Offshore Mineral Resources of the Central Pacific Basin. Springer, New York, NY. 1992: 225-245.
[3] Hein J R, Schwab W C, Davis A. Cobalt-and platinum-rich ferromanganese crusts and associated substrate rocks from the Marshall Islands [J]. Marine Geology, 1988, 78(3-4): 255-283. doi: 10.1016/0025-3227(88)90113-2
[4] Sutherland K M, Wankel S D, Hein J R, et al. Spectroscopic insights into ferromanganese crust formation and diagenesis [J]. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 2020, 21(11): e2020GC009074.
[5] Hein J R, Koschinsky A, Bau M, et al. Cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts in the Pacific[M]//Cronan S D. Handbook of Marine Mineral Deposits. Florida: CRC Press, 2000: 239-279.
[6] Koschinsky A, Hein J R. Uptake of elements from seawater by ferromanganese crusts: solid-phase associations and seawater speciation [J]. Marine Geology, 2003, 198(3-4): 331-351. doi: 10.1016/S0025-3227(03)00122-1
[7] Wang X L, Planavsky N J, Reinhard C T, et al. A Cenozoic seawater redox record derived from 238U/235U in ferromanganese crusts [J]. American Journal of Science, 2016, 316(1): 64-83. doi: 10.2475/01.2016.02
[8] Ling H F, Burton K W, O'nions R K, et al. Evolution of Nd and Pb isotopes in Central Pacific seawater from ferromanganese crusts [J]. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 1997, 146(1-2): 1-12. doi: 10.1016/S0012-821X(96)00224-5
[9] Chen T Y, Ling H F, Hu R, et al. Lead isotope provinciality of central North Pacific Deep Water over the Cenozoic [J]. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 2013, 14(5): 1523-1537. doi: 10.1002/ggge.20114
[10] Li\ng H F, Jiang S Y, Frank M, et al. Differing controls over the Cenozoic Pb and Nd isotope evolution of deepwater in the central North Pacific Ocean [J]. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2005, 232(3-4): 345-361. doi: 10.1016/j.jpgl.2004.12.009
[11] Jiang X D, Zhao X, Zhao X Y, et al. A magnetic approach to unravelling the paleoenvironmental significance of nanometer-sized Fe hydroxide in NW Pacific ferromanganese deposits [J]. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2021, 565: 116945. doi: 10.1016/j.jpgl.2021.116945
[12] Koschinsky A, Stascheit A, Bau M, et al. Effects of phosphatization on the geochemical and mineralogical composition of marine ferromanganese crusts [J]. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1997, 61(19): 4079-4094. doi: 10.1016/S0016-7037(97)00231-7
[13] Hein J R, Bohrson W A, Schulz M S, et al. Variations in the fine-scale composition of a Central Pacific ferromanganese crust: paleoceanographic implications [J]. Paleoceanography, 1992, 7(1): 63-77. doi: 10.1029/91PA02936
[14] Josso P, Rushton J, Lusty P, et al. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic paleoceanography from North-east Atlantic ferromanganese crust microstratigraphy [J]. Marine Geology, 2020, 422: 106122. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2020.106122
[15] Koschinsky A, Hein J R. Marine ferromanganese encrustations: archives of changing oceans [J]. Elements, 2017, 13(3): 177-182. doi: 10.2113/gselements.13.3.177
[16] Ji L H, Liu G S, Huang Y P, et al. The distribution of iodine and effects of phosphatization on it in the ferromanganese crusts from the Mid-Pacific Ocean [J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2015, 34(8): 13-19. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0704-x
[17] Nishi K, Usui A, Nakasato Y, et al. Formation age of the dual structure and environmental change recorded in hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts from Northwest and Central Pacific seamounts [J]. Ore Geology Reviews, 2017, 87: 62-70. doi: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.09.004
[18] 王吉中. 磷酸盐化对中太平洋海山富钴结壳物质组分的影响[D]. 北京: 中国地质大学(北京), 2005.

WANG Jizhong. Effects of phosphatization on composition of Co-rich crusts on central pacific seamounts[D]. Beijing: China University of Geosciences (Beijing), 2005. ]
[19] 崔迎春, 石学法, 刘季花. 富钴结核粒径分形特征[J]. 海洋湖沼通报, 2008(3):67-70 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1003-6482.2008.03.009

CUI Yingchun, SHI Xuefa, LIU Jihua. Fractal characters of grain size of cobalt-rich nodule [J]. Transactions of Oceanology and Limnology, 2008(3): 67-70. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1003-6482.2008.03.009
[20] 胡镕, 陈天宇, 凌洪飞. 晚新生代北太平洋西部深水洋流演化: 来自铁锰结壳Nd同位素的证据[J]. 科学通报, 2012, 57(31):4077-1086 doi: 10.1007/s11434-012-5322-9

HU Rong, CHEN Tianyu, LING Hongfei. Late Cenozoic history of deep water circulation in the western North Pacific: Evidence from Nd isotopes of ferromanganese crusts [J]. Chinese Science Bulletin, 2012, 57(31): 4077-1086. doi: 10.1007/s11434-012-5322-9
[21] 周枫, 凌洪飞, 陆尊礼, 等. 中太平洋铁锰结壳铅同位素研究[J]. 海洋地质与第四纪地质, 2005, 25(1):55-62

ZHOU Feng, LING Hongfei, LU Zunli, et al. Research of lead isotope of ferromanganese crusts from central Pacific Ocean [J]. Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, 2005, 25(1): 55-62.
[22] Kawabe M, Fujio S. Pacific ocean circulation based on observation [J]. Journal of Oceanography, 2010, 66(3): 389-403. doi: 10.1007/s10872-010-0034-8
[23] Hyeong K, Kim J, Yoo C M, et al. Cenozoic history of phosphogenesis recorded in the ferromanganese crusts of central and western Pacific seamounts: implications for deepwater circulation and phosphorus budgets [J]. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 2013, 392: 293-301. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2013.09.012
[24] Koschinsky A, Halbach P. Sequential leaching of marine ferromanganese precipitates: genetic implications [J]. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1995, 59(24): 5113-5132. doi: 10.1016/0016-7037(95)00358-4
[25] Halbach P, Segl M, Puteanus D, et al. Co-fluxes and growth rates in ferromanganese deposits from central Pacific seamount areas [J]. Nature, 304(, 5928, ): 716-719.
[26] 赵建如, 初凤友, 杨克红, 等. 中太平洋C海山富钴结壳铁锰矿物的组成、成分特征及其成因意义[J]. 海洋学研究, 2009, 27(1):15-21 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-909X.2009.01.003

ZHAO Jianru, CHU Fengyou, YANG Kehong, et al. Manganese mineral components, compositional characteristics and their implication for genesis of cobalt-rich crust from C seamount in Central Pacific [J]. Journal of Marine Sciences, 2009, 27(1): 15-21. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-909X.2009.01.003
[27] Frank M, O’nions R K, Hein J R, et al. 60 Myr records of major elements and Pb-Nd isotopes from hydrogenous ferromanganese crusts: Reconstruction of seawater paleochemistry [J]. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1999, 63(11-12): 1689-1708. doi: 10.1016/S0016-7037(99)00079-4
[28] Friedrich G, Schmitz-Wiechowski A. Mineralogy and chemistry of a ferromanganese crust from a deep-sea hill, central Pacific, "Valdivia" cruise VA 132 [J]. Marine Geology, 1980, 37(1-2): 71-90. doi: 10.1016/0025-3227(80)90012-2
[29] Segl M, Mangini A, Beer J, et al. Growth rate variations of manganese nodules and crusts induced by paleoceanographic events [J]. Paleoceanography, 1989, 4(5): 511-530. doi: 10.1029/PA004i005p00511
[30] Manceau A, Gorshkov A I, Drits V A. Structural chemistry of Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni in manganese hydrous oxides: Part I. Information from XANES spectroscopy [J]. American Mineralogist, 1992, 77(11-12): 1133-1143.
[31] Manceau A, Gorshkov A I, Drits V A. Structural chemistry of Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni in manganese hydrous oxides: Part II. Information from EXAFS spectroscopy and electron and X-ray diffraction [J]. American Mineralogist, 1992, 77(11-12): 1144-1157.
[32] Liu R L, Wang M Y, Li W Q, et al. Dissolved thorium isotope evidence for export productivity in the subtropical North Pacific during the late Quaternary [J]. Geophysical Research Letters, 2020, 47(11): e2019GL085995.
[33] 胡镕, 陈天宇, 凌洪飞. 晚第四纪中北太平洋铁锰结壳Fe/Mn变化: 对古气候变化的响应[J]. 高校地质学报, 2012, 18(4):751-758 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-7493.2012.04.016

HU Rong, CHEN Tianyu, LING Hongfei. Fe/Mn variations of late Quaternary ferromanganese crusts from the central North Pacific: implications for the paleoenvironment change [J]. Geological Journal of China Universities, 2012, 18(4): 751-758. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-7493.2012.04.016
[34] 姜学钧. 海洋铁锰氧化物沉积物中常、微量元素的地球化学特征[D]. 青岛: 中国海洋大学, 2007.

JIANG Xuejun. Geochemistry of major and minor elements in marine ferromanganese oxide deposits[D]. Qingdao: Ocean University of China, 2007. ]
[35] 武光海, 周怀阳, 张海生, 等. 海山铁锰结壳中反映环境氧化程度的新指标[J]. 中国科学 D辑:地球科学, 2007, 50(3):371-384 doi: 10.1007/s11430-007-2011-7

WU Guanghai, ZHOU Huaiyang, ZHANG Haisheng, et al. New index of ferromanganese crusts reflecting oceanic environmental oxidation [J]. Science in China Series D:Earth Sciences, 2007, 50(3): 371-384. doi: 10.1007/s11430-007-2011-7
[36] Wen X, De Carlo E H, Li Y H. Interelement relationships in ferromanganese crusts from the Central Pacific Ocean: Their implications for crust genesis [J]. Marine Geology, 1997, 136(3-4): 277-297. doi: 10.1016/S0025-3227(96)00064-3
[37] Hein J R, Yeh H W, Gunn S H, et al. Two major Cenozoic episodes of phosphogenesis recorded in equatorial Pacific Seamount deposits [J]. Paleoceanography, 1993, 8(2): 293-311. doi: 10.1029/93PA00320
[38] Thibault N, Harlou R, Schovsbo N H, et al. Late Cretaceous (late Campanian-Maastrichtian) sea-surface temperature record of the Boreal Chalk Sea [J]. Climate of the Past, 2016, 12(2): 429-438. doi: 10.5194/cp-12-429-2016
[39] Batenburg S J, Voigt S, Friedrich O, et al. Major intensification of Atlantic overturning circulation at the onset of Paleogene greenhouse warmth [J]. Nature Communications, 2018, 9(1): 4954. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07457-7
[40] Miller K G, Wright J D, Fairbanks R G. Unlocking the ice house: Oligocene-Miocene oxygen isotopes, eustasy, and margin erosion [J]. Journal of Geophysical Research:Solid Earth, 1991, 96(B4): 6829-6848. doi: 10.1029/90JB02015
[41] Salamy K A, Zachos J C. Latest eocene-early oligocene climate change and Southern Ocean fertility: inferences from sediment accumulation and stable isotope data [J]. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 1999, 145(1-3): 61-77. doi: 10.1016/S0031-0182(98)00093-5
[42] Halbach P, Puteanus D. The influence of the carbonate dissolution rate on the growth and composition of Co-rich ferromanganese crusts from Central Pacific Seamount areas [J]. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 1984, 68(1): 73-87. doi: 10.1016/0012-821X(84)90141-9
[43] Halbach P E, Sattler C D, Teichmann F, et al. Cobalt-rich and platinum-bearing manganese crust deposits on seamounts: nature, formation, and metal potential [J]. Marine Mining, 1989, 8(1): 23-39.
[44] Lear C H, Elderfield H, Wilson P A. Cenozoic deep-sea temperatures and global ice volumes from Mg/Ca in benthic foraminiferal calcite [J]. Science, 2000, 287(5451): 269-272. doi: 10.1126/science.287.5451.269
[45] Josso P, Van Peer T, Horstwood M S A, et al. Geochemical evidence of Milankovitch cycles in Atlantic Ocean ferromanganese crusts [J]. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2021, 553: 116651. doi: 10.1016/j.jpgl.2020.116651